13 English is the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia. US (64.3) UK (16.7) Canada (5.3) Australia (4.7) South Africa (1.3) Ireland (1.1) New Zealand (1) Other (5.6) Pluricentric English English is a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language. In Kirkpatrick, Andy (ed.). Consonant differences include the tendency to pronounce /p, t, t, k/ without aspiration (e.g. "The grammar of English phrasal verbs". Now the majority of the United States population are monolingual English speakers, although English has been given official status by only 30 of the 50 state governments of the. For example, in the phrases the slender boy, and many slender girls, the adjective slender does not change form to agree with either the number or gender of the noun. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency 2012, Table KS207NI: Main Language. The modern English alphabet contains 26 letters of the Latin script : a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w,. (1989) "Lexico-semantic variation in Nigerian English World Englishes, 8(2 165177. Archaeology and Language: Correlating Archaeological and Linguistic Hypotheses. The language is closely related. They are semantically divided into proper nouns (names) and common nouns. You you your yours yourself 3rd. Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English.
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Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties. Legacies of colonial English: Studies in transported dialects. Willams, Origins of the English Language. Lay summary (23 February 2015). The non-past form is unmarked except in the third person singular, which takes the suffix -s. Another way is through a cleft sentence where the main clause is demoted to be a complement clause of a copula sentence with a dummy subject such as it or there,.g. Many users of English in the expanding circle use it to communicate with other people from the expanding circle, so that interaction with native speakers of English plays no part in their decision to use English. Discourse markers such as oh, so or well, also signal the progression of ideas between sentences and help to create cohesion. Varieties of English learned by non-native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. As Modern English developed, explicit norms for standard usage were published, and spread through official media such as public education and state-sponsored publications. Vestiges of the case and gender system are found in the pronoun system ( he/him, who/whom ) and in the inflection of the copula verb.
from 12001450. Its grammar was similar to that of modern German, and its closest relative is Old Frisian. West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. Many of these words had earlier been borrowed into Latin from Greek. In Brown, Keith (ed.). Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Stress, rhythm and intonation See also: Stress and vowel reduction in English and Intonation in English Stress plays an important role in English. Because lenis consonants are frequently voiceless at the end of a syllable, vowel length is an important cue as to whether the following consonant is lenis or fortis. Geographical distribution See also: List of territorial entities where English is an official language, Geographical distribution of English speakers, List of countries by English-speaking population, and English-speaking world Percentage of English native speakers. Lenis consonants are partly voiced at the beginning and end of utterances, and fully voiced between vowels. Linguist David Crystal estimates that non-native speakers now outnumber native speakers by a ratio of 3. It has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Online). Retrieved 16 December 2014. In Bailey, Richard.; Görlach, Manfred (eds.).
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But some contemporary grammars such as that of Huddleston Pullum (2002 :598600) no longer consider government of case to be the defining feature of the class of prepositions, rather defining prepositions as words that can function as the heads of prepositional phrases. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, page cccxi. "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead". ; grammatical rules require Do you know him? Old English was divided into four dialects: the Anglian dialects ( Mercian and Northumbrian ) and the Saxon dialects, Kentish and West Saxon. Subjunctive: It is important that he run every day ; imperative Run! The settlement history of the English-speaking inner circle countries outside Britain helped level dialect distinctions and produce koineised forms of English in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. From the 5th century CE, the Anglo-Saxons settled Britain as the Roman economy and administration collapsed. In most sentences, English only marks grammatical relations through word order.